Industrial & Organizational Psychology

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              Leadership, Globalization and Diversity, and                                              Organizational Structure and Culture

It was Steve’s leadership that Apple created a system and structure that converted knowledge into actual products. It is fascinating that Steve Jobs exhibited transformational and transactional leadership styles to motivate his employees to reach nearly impossible goals. The current Apple chief executive, Timothy Donald Cook, received more than five million shares in the technology giant in the past ten years. The new CEO climbed from the chief operating officer and, currently, the chief executive since 2011 with a democratic leadership style has propelled him to motivate every talented employee at Apple to contribute to the company’s success.

    Tim is very “cautious, collaborative and tactical using management that relies on the group’s input as a whole. His leadership style reshaped how Apple staff work and think.’ Most democratic leaders like Tim believe in the connectivity between the constituent and their leaders, thus allowing employees and leaders to share their experience and talent for the organization’s benefit (Auerbach, 2019). Unlike Arvind Krishna, IBM’s Chairman and Chief Executive Officer replaced Ginni Rometty, who balanced transition and traditional style to lead IBM (Carville, 2020). Arvind Krishna is leading the company through a culture of bureaucracy and formalities. Arvin believes leaders dictating and constrain certain actions within IBM, thus structuring the IBM organization so that employees will follow the orders of their leaders. His leadership focuses on executing strategically and strengthening their client-centric culture and the organization’s ability to provide technical expertise (Krishna, 2021). Arvin’s leadership theory focuses on a bureaucratic culture that empowers leadership and knowledge sharing, thus encouraging employees to follow the rules and regulations (Hendryadi et al., 2019). Leadership style affects employee performance.

     Apple CEO Timothy Donald Cook’s democratic style and IBM CEO Arvind Krishna’s bureaucratic and formalities leadership style have few similarities and differences. Leaders in both companies make the ultimate decision even though Apple CEO Timothy Cook allows employees to suggest, yet he makes the final judgment. With democratic, the leaders invite and motivate employees and team members to play a part in the decision-making process, while bureaucratic leadership strictly enforces leaders to obey or adhere to organizational rules and policies that are rigid rules-based decisions without flexibility (Gultom & Situmorang, 2018). In essence, employees should strictly obey rules and procedures. Bureaucratic leaders reward and promote their employees based on employees’ ability to follow and adhere to organizational rules. However, Democratic leaders allow their employees to communicate their experiences and suggestions. In essence, bureaucratic leadership shapes policy outcomes (Berkowitz & Krause, 2020).

     Globalization and diversity have created politics in the global production and supply chain, thus greatly impacting Apple production and its employees. Taiwanese own Foxconn that makes it competitive for the supply of Apple in China, thus creating global pressures. The timing delivery and competition on the global market is puts pressure on Apple leaders to illegally force employees to work overtime (Chan et al., 2013). Tim Cook, the CEO, has to manage Apple and turned diversity into a priority. The company has provided jobs for employees in the united states, Asia, and other parts of the world. The diverse force makes it easy for Apple to extend its dominance of production worldwide. Communication by leaders around the world is possible than before. Apple has introduced the 3G, 4G, iPod, and ITUNES combination technology.



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